Type2 Diabetes

You are a nurse in an acute care hospital. Your new patient JD is in the hospital for fractures. His chart showed he has type 2 diabetes with HbA1c of 8.0%. JDs sister came in to visit at lunch and brought him a Big Mac (3 slices of bread) with large fries on the side in addition to a bag of potato chips and a bottle of orange juice. You are concerned about the high carbohydrate content of the meal and discussed this with JD and JDs sister. JDs sister said, I know my brother has diabetes, so I didnt bring him soda or dessert.  JD said I really love my carbs, but I know I should avoid all carbs to make my sugar low. Doctor said something about my A1c. Do you know what that is about? Both JD and his sister said they would like to learn more about diabetes and diet.

Q1. Please explain to JD why he needs carbohydrates and describe the 2 functions of carbohydrates mentioned in the lecture

Q2. Please explain to JDs sister the different types of carbohydrates. Provide 2 examples of simple carbohydrates and 2 examples of complex carbohydrates.

Q3. Please explain to JD and his sister what the HbA1c test is and how to use A1c level to categorize normal blood sugar, pre-diabetes, and diabetes according to the ADA. Please also describe the target HbA1c level for people diagnosed with diabetes.

Q4. Please explain to JD and his sister some of the diabetes treatment options, including diet, exercise, insulin injections, and oral medications.