1. What does John Ogbu mean by voluntary minorities and involuntary minorities, and how
do these terms relate to immigrant minorities and non-immigrant minorities?
2. What, according to Ogbu, are the implications of the different minority types in terms of
variability in educational attainment (school performance) and why? Do you agree?
3. What does Ogbu say about autonomous minorities (page 320), and does he pay them
4. Do you agree with Ogbus involuntary minority / acting white thesis? (especially pages
5. How might Ogbus background, social class, voluntary minority position, and educated
elite status influence his perspective on involuntary minorities?